Saturday, February 15, 2020
Healthcare Management Centers for Medicare and Medicaid - Research Paper Example care has other responsibilities which include the standards for administrative simplification from the (Cms.gov, 2014) Accountability Act of 1996 and (Allgov.com, 2014) Health Insurance Portability. It also has another responsibility for worth standards in durable health care facilities through its certification process and survey (Cms.gov, 2014) process, quality standards for clinical laboratory under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments as well as oversight of HealthCare.gov. (Allgov.com, 2014) The Medicare together with Medicaid programs were contracted into law on 30th July 1965 (Cms.gov, 2014). LBJ who was the president by then is seen at the signing ceremony during independence at the Truman library in Missouri (Cms.gov, 2014). Truman who was the former president is also pictured seated beside him. President LBJ held the ceremony there in honor of the leadership of President Truman on health insurance. He had first proposed it in 1945. The most important legislative modification to Medicare referred to as the Medicare Modernization Act was as well signed into law by (Cms.gov, 2014) President George W. Bush (Cms.gov, 2014) from Texas, on 8th December 2003. This historic legislation is of significance to the outpatient as it adds the outpatientÃ¢â¬â¢s drug prescription advantage to Medicare and it also leads to many other significant changes (Cms.gov, 2014). A number of changes have been implemented (Cms.gov, 2014) to Center for Medical services programs since 1965 (Cm s.gov, 2014). In addition, the agencies that are concerned with the implementation of these programs have also changed (Cms.gov, 2014).The head of the Center for Medical services programs is as well the Administrator of the Center for both the Medicaid and Medicare Services (Cms.gov, 2014). This position of leadership is appointed by the president and the Senate confirms it. The Center for Medicare Services hires a total of approximately 4,100 employees 2,700 (Cms.gov, 2014) of the
Sunday, February 2, 2020
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT - Essay Example The broad membership of the panel includes people from investor community, law practitioners in the city and people from business houses. The panel became a statuary body in May-06, thereby giving it the power to enforce its rules and lows in compliance of the code. The code of the panel is also included in the part 28 of the Companies Act 2006. It is the overall responsibility of the panel towards policy making, financing and administrating functions or the Panel and its code. The two committees of Panel include the Hearing Committee and the Code Committee. It also has a Panel Executive that carries out the daily work of the Panel and is creditworthy of general administration. The Panel operates with 6 general principles, 38 rules and 4 fundamental objectives which include equal and fair treatment for shareholders, availability of information to the shareholders in proper and timely manner, restoring fair markets and preventing frustration action against any of them. B. Identify and examine economic reasons for acquisitions and mergers and discuss why the expected economic benefits may not be achieved? The primary reason for acquisitions and mergers by a firm is its desire and effort to increase its market power. For increase the size and market capitalization of the firm, companyÃ¢â¬â¢s go for horizontal, vertical and conglomerate mergers. Other economic reasons for acquisitions and mergers include overcoming of market barriers, increased speed to the market by increasing market capitalization and gaining access to new markets, overcoming the high risk and high costs of new product development, diversification into other activities/businesses, and reshaping the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive scope. Some companies go for mergers and acquisitions to restructure their cost of capital by increasing/diluting equity and through leverage buyouts. More often cross border acquisitions offer the company with cheap access to resources like labour and raw materials, modern technology and sometimes benefits from legality. Sometimes the expected benefits out of a merger and acquisition may not be achieved by the firms. Many firms tend to increase their cost of capital post merger rather than decreasing it. Moreover, in case of leverage buyouts many companies fall in liquidity and solvency risks by increasing their debt equity ratio more than anticipated. For a successful merger and acquisition a firm needs to understand the culture of the organization it is aiming to acquire. The firm many not receive a good support from the employees and stakeholders of the organization acquired which reduces the economic benefits expected out of the acquisition. Another primary concern in the acquisitions is the valuation of company to be acquired. In case of high valuations where a company pays high price in excess of market value for acquiring other company, economic benefits tend to dry down over a period of time. Part 2 Identify the long term funding options avail able for unquoted small and medium business enterprises, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these funding options. Small and medium businesses (SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s) include the companies that are not listed in stock exchange and wherein business is owned by a limited number of people. Moreover, there includes family partnerships in which individuals start-off with the purpose of achieving self employment. SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s face problems in getting financing primarily due to
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Structure And Culture Of Volkswagen Commerce Essay In a fast-changing world, large business organisations have to take decisions to enhance the strategic growth to be competitive. This report includes a critical evaluation of the organisation Volkswagens structure and culture; it also covers the management role and a strategic decision. Volkswagen is a part of the Volkswagen Group of America, but only the brand Volkswagen will be emphasised and not the other brands such as Bentley, Bugatti, Audi and Porsche. Important factors of this organisation will be explored, and links will draw it together with the aim to reveal their relationship and influence in a large organisation such as the Volkswagen Group of America. Furthermore, these factors will influence the firm performance, thus it crucial to continuously observe and analyse the internal and external environment around the organisation in order to achieve long-term success (Kunc, 2010). Structure and Culture An organisation is a social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a certain need and/or to pursue shared goals. All organisations have a management structure that decides relationships between the different activities and the members, and subdivides and assigns roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out distinctive tasks. Organisations affect and are affected by its environment because it is an open system (Murcko, 2012). Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (VW AG) is an international company based in Wolfsburg, Germany and is the parent company of Volkswagen Group of America. The parent company guide and control the Volkswagen Group of America, but the group is managed by its own respective managers. The executive board of VW AG make sure that the framework of the VW AG is being enforced for each decision made the Volkswagen Group of America (Volkswagen, 2007). The structure within Volkswagen Group of America is made up by different divisions, because the departme nts in form of different brands are grouped together and based on similar organisational output (Daft, 2011, p. 282). A common issue in structuring a company is how to make the entire company work. Make it work means the structure of the company has to adapt to major factors such as environment changes, and the change in culture, strategy and technology (Rosen, 1995, p. 69). Volkswagen Group of America has a horizontal structure based on the work processes rather than departmental functions. This is beneficial as it allows the company to be more flexible in a changing environment, and especially for a rapidly change in technology, which is crucial for a car manufacture company. Business performance is heavily influenced by how well the structure of a company is connected and aligned with the strategic intend (Daft, 2011, p. 297). If the environment in which the company is operating or affected by is changing, it is sometimes necessary to change the structure of the company. Successful managers have to observe the environment carefully and create a structure and strategy which are congruent. Culture is closely related to the main assumptions and beliefs of an organisation that provide a guideline for its members, including attitudes, perception, norms, ways of thinking and behaviour (Rosen, 1995, p. 71). Culture can also focus more on people, relations meanings, commitments, motivation and emotion. (Alvesson, 2008, p. 36). The internal environment of an organisation is vital as it has to fit in the external environment and strategy of the organisation. Volkswagen Group of America has applied this theory to achieve an industry orientated culture and environment, which relays on performance, innovation and responsibility. Volkswagen is known as a producer of people cares, and has performed actions to support this claim for several generations. Innovation and responsibility are the other two key factors where innovation is indispensable for technological change to reduce the level of CO2 and responsibility focus on people as workers or craft men and treat them as individual (Volkswagen, 2007). Individual culture within the Volkswagen Group of America is focused around social responsibility, national pride and the flagship of philanthropic in the education sector. The Group of America has a particular strong goal to recruit and select students for future workforce in the US with the right attitude and mind-set (Wiley, 2010). Culture can guide companies, enhance control and foster loyalty and identification with a group (Smircich, 1983). A danger to organisation culture is that it can become uncontrollable and unreasonable and may hurt the organisation (Anthony, 1994, p. 93). Management role and decision taking In todays fast changing global world it is essential to succeed as an organisation in times of turbulence and recession. The correct management style has to be chosen and developed in order to be successful (Rosen, 1995, p. 72). Over the decades many important strategic management operations and related decisions have been made by the Volkswagen Group of America. These strategic decisions play a part in the long-time well-being of the organisation (Fitzroy, 2005, p. 5). Culture as described in the previous section of this report should reinforce the decision making of managers (Rosen, 1995, p. 71). The new car Volkswagen New Midsize Sedan (NMS) is an excellent example of strategic management. The car was designed just for the US market, but Volkswagen decided to start shipping the model to South Korea as well. Volkswagen NMS is produced in Chattanooga, Tennessee, US, and use mainly American suppliers. The aim is to increase the low numbers of sales from the past and to build a Volksw agen made by the US, by using American employers and suppliers (Jacoby, 2009). The car will cost around 20k USD and will compete with other everyday cars in this price range. The idea for this decision is to exploit the technology, innovation and experience of a German car manufacturer with the tradition of manufacturing made by the US. This long term strategic decision is determined by selling one million units in the United States by 2018 (Kurylko, 2009). Volkswagen has also made a Chinese version of this car for the Chinese market. This car will be produced in China by Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive, which is another group within Volkswagen (ChinaAutoWeb, 2010). In the example above the strategic decision to launch the Volkswagen NMS model was made by the German CEO of Volkswagen Group of America Stefan Jacoby. He was transferred from Volkswagen AG to increase the profit of Group of America (Kurylko, 2009). This decision was based on the rational model which uses rational economic assumptions regarding shareholders, employees, suppliers and customers (Woiceshyn, 2011). Quantitative research collection is important, because this method relies on accurate information. The rational model also use market analysis, strategic direction, evaluation, market response and forecasting, agreed goals and alternatives within the group but also the intuition of the manager as means to make a rational decision (Stewert, 2011). The rational model is made after analysing a cause and development of alternatives but this model also has room for intuition (Dane, 2007). The overall and long-term direction of an organisation is decided by its strategic planning (Rosen, 1995, p. 76). Furthermore, long-term direction is also determined by structure and culture, and if these factors are not taken into account, the organisation will most likely not meet designated goals. In the US drivers tend to use their car more frequently, and they are doing more activities such as eating, drinking coffee, putting on make-up, etc. (Kiley, 2007). This is because the car is associated with the American dream and every individual with respect for themselves will own a car, which again makes the public transport system less used (Will, 2012). Volkswagen NMSs predecessor did not take the difference between the American and European culture into account, and could be a reason why the sales were not adequate. The CEO from Germany has to understand and implement the American culture if he wants to maximize Volkswagens sales in the US market. For this reason, the Human Resour ce Management (HRM) has the significant role to attract and motivate talented employees with the necessary culture to cope with the environment (Daft, 2011, p. 84). By hiring American employees and using local suppliers Volkswagen makes sure that the culture will agree with the market. No strategy can be effectively implemented without the right people; hence all levels and functions of an organisation should have and exercise of influence. Conclusion The culture in an organisation can be weak or strong depending on the degree of individual behaviour. Organisation structure can have a flat or a steep hierarchy, where the role of the management in this context is to set the right goals and objectives related to the defined values (Bushardt, 2011). To achieve the designated goals and objectives, the strategic decisions should comprehend the main values of the organisation. A manager who does not follow the defined culture within an organisation can influence others and may change the culture in the organisation, even in large companies such as Volkswagen. If the goal setting is different to the defined values, the outcome will be unsatisfied, which means a change in the structure of the organisation has to be made. In large organisation the structure is normally deep anchored and therefore the people who make the decision have to be changed. This was done in 2007 when Volkswagen Group of America changed its former CEO. Dropping sale s and no profitability since 2002 forced Volkswagen to make major changes to adapt to its environment (Prospero, 2007). Producing a precise and correct forecast of an important strategic process in a business is very difficult, as there are many uncertainties in todays global economy. The CEO and managers of an organisation can attempt to minimise the uncertainties of the business if they follow all values of the organisation including the consideration of change in the environment.
Friday, January 17, 2020
I could hear the ripples in the water. Tried to skip rocks through the water, but all I could think about was you. How It was a very sad and lonely day. One day I thought about the trees and the flowers, but of course you'd pop up again. I always thought that life would be possible without you. The more I think about it; the more that dream seems to be impossible. I hate this life I live because school nor life could ever be as good as you were. You were the inspiration that kept me going in school that made me try and now that you're gone I not know what to do with my life anymore.I hate the fact that I don't know this and all I really need help Is with my History class, but that can't even seem to be close to being done since all you do now a days Is Ignore me, The water was quiet so quiet that I could hear the ripples in the water. I tried to skip rocks through the water, but all I could think about was you. How it was a very sad and lonely day. One day I thought about the trees a nd the flowers, but of course you'd pop up again. I always thought that life would be possible without you.The more I think about it; the more that dream seems to be Impossible. I hate this life I live because school nor life could ever be as good as you were. You were the Inspiration that kept me going In school that made me try and now that you're gone I don't know what to do with my life anymore. I hate the fact that I don't know this and all I really need help is with my History class, but that can't even seem to be close to being done since all you do now a days is ignore me. The water was quiet so quiet that I could hear the ripples in the water.I tried to skip rocks through the water, but all I could think about was you. How it was a very sad and lonely day. One day I thought about the trees and the flowers, but of course you'd pop up again, I always thought that life would be possible without you. The more I think about it; the more that dream seems to be Impossible. I hate this life I live because school nor life could ever be as good as you were. You were the inspiration that kept me going in school that made me try and now that you're gone I don't know what to do with my life anymore.I hate the fact that I don't know this and all I really need help is with my History class, but that can't even seem to be close to being done since all you do now a days is ignore me. The water was quiet so quiet that I could hear the ripples In the water. I tried to skip rocks through the water, but all I could think about was you. How it was a very sad and lonely day. One day I thought about the trees and the flowers, but of course you'd pop up again. I always thought that life would be possible without you.The more I think about it; the more that dream seems to be impossible. I hate this life I live because school nor life could ever be as good as you were. You were the inspiration that kept me going in school that made me try and now that you're gone I don't know w hat to do with my life anymore. Hate the fact that I don't know this and all I really need help Is with my History class, but that can't even seem to be close to being done since all you do now but of course you'd pop up again.I always thought that life would be possible diet so quiet that I could hear the ripples in the water. I tried to skip rocks through school that made me try and now that you're gone I don't know what to do with my life anymore. I hate the fact that I don't know this and all I really need help is with my without you. The more I think about it; the more that dream seems to be impossible. I you're gone I don't know what to do with my life anymore. I hate the fact that I don't know this and all I really need help is with my History class, but that can't even seem a days is ignore me.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Tiltle: What was happened to the bananas? Objective: To compare the amount of reducing sugars and starch in yellow and green bananas. Introduction: Bananas are green in colour and taste flat but after they are harvested and stored for some days, they will turn yellow from green and become sweet. Hypothesis: The green banana tasted plain because it contained large amount of starch, while the yellow banana tasted sweet since it contained large amount of reducing sugars. Biological principles: Benedicts test for reducing sugar: Reducing sugars include all monosaccharides (glucose) and some disaccharides (maltose). Benedicts solution contains copper sulphates. Reducing sugars reduce copper(2) ions present in the blue copper sulphateÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the Benedicts test, the volume of ppt in ripe banana sample is the largest, ppt in the raw banana is is the smallest, ppt in the half ripe banana is greater than the raw bananas but smaller than that of ripe banana. In the iodine test, the colour of the sample shows that the raw banana has the largest amount of starch. The raw banana has the smallest amount of starch. The amount of starch in half-ripe banana is greater than that of ripe banana but smaller than that of the raw banana. In the Benedicts test, we can use another means to show the result. After having a hot water bath,we can remove the liquid solution form the sample. Then we put it onto the water bath with evaporate dish in order to remove the water in the ppt. After that we weight the ppt. In the iodine test, the result is not accurate enough because the result is determined by our bear eye. We can use another method to show the result more accurately. First, we can use the colorimeter to determine the colour intensity of the blue colour of the sample. Second, we can use the same amount of sample and drop the iodine solution until their colour intensity are the same. At the same time, we can measure the drops of the iodine we have added. The larger amount of drops used that means more starch is present. The
Monday, December 23, 2019
Association between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion (I/D) Polymorphism and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Aisha Mahmood Fageer, Elshazali Widaa Ali, Nasr Eldeen Ali Mohamed Department of haematology, Faculty of medical laboratory sciences, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan Corresponding author: Dr. Elshazali Widaa Ali Mohamed Ahmed, Ph.D Faculty of medical laboratory sciences, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan Mobile: 00249122694501, E-mail: email@example.com Abstract Background: Recurrent abortion or recurrent pregnant loss (RPL) is a common clinical problem, and for most women the cause is unknown. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) affects vascular structure and placental function, and its role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte balance is well documented, as well as it is play a role in regulation of fibrinolysis indirectly. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association of the ACE I/D polymorphism with recurrent pregnancy loss in Sudanese women. Materials and methods: It is a case-control study, in which 40 patients with RPL and 40 healthy women with one or more successful pregnancies were enrolled. Salting out method was used for DNA isolation from peripheral blood leukocytes, and PCR was used to determine the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II). Results: In women with RPL the frequencies of ACE genotypes were found to be 57.5% for DD, 35.0% for ID, and 7.5% for II. in the control group the frequencies were 92.5% for DD,Show MoreRelatedInfertility : Polycystic Ovary Syndrome1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconception (12). A higher incidence of first trimester spontaneous abortions (25Ã¢â¬â73%) has been reported in women with polycystic ovaries or PCOS (13). 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In addition, it may also be diagnosed by noticeable symptoms which arise from high blood sugar. These includes polyuria (urination), polydipsia (thirst) and weight loss (despite adequate consumptionRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus : A Global Health Issue930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfight off certain infections and diseases. The virus is spread through sexual secretions (i.e. semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluid, vaginal fluid) and blood. Less commonly, HIV can be given to an infant from the ir mother during pregnancy or childbirth, through oral sex, by receiving blood transfusions, blood products, organs, or tissue transplants, through contact between broken skin, wounds, or membrane. It is important to note that one cannot be infected by HIV through non-sexual or casual contact