Friday, May 22, 2020

Marco Polo, the outsider; Ibn Battuta, the insider Essay

Nowadays the wide array of transportation means and infrastructures at our disposal has made it relatively easy for us to travel from one country to another; even when those countries are thousands of miles away from each other. However, during the 13th and 14th centuries, travelling was not that easy. Yet, two men, the Italian tradesman Marco Polo and the Moroccan Jurist Ibn Battuta became famous for having managed to perform extremely long distance journeys away from their home country. At the end of their long travels, both men shared their experiences with the world via the books, The Travels of Marco Polo and The Travels of Ibn Battuta. An analysis of those two texts reveals two things. On one hand, Marco Polo remained a cultural†¦show more content†¦In 1271, Marco Polo’s father and uncle, both merchants from Europe, were requested to return to China for the second time by the Mongol Emperor, Kublai Khan. The purpose of the request made by the Great Khan (Kublai) was to bring back to the Mongol court some holy oil from Jerusalem and â€Å"a hundred men of learning, thoroughly acquainted with the principles of the Christian religion† (Polo 7) to convince the Mongols to convert to Christianity. Marco Polo joined his father and uncle for this second journey to the East. As part of this journey, Polo traveled throughout regions of the Middle East and Central Asia before reaching the final destination. Further, while working for Kublai Khan in China, he was sent on many inspection tours which allowed him to explore most of the provinces of China. In all the regions that were visited along the way, and more so in the case of the Mongol Empire, there was a distinct disparity in the culture as compared to Polo’s native land. Moreover, Marco Polo’s religious disposition towards Christianity set him apart from the people of the region –the Tartars—who , according to the Kublai Khan, where worshippers of â€Å"evil spirits† (Polo 7). These factors placed Marco Polo in the position of an â€Å"outsider† as defined by Hage, i.e. â€Å"someone who does not experience either socio-cultural or political belonging. It is someone whose mental and bodily dispositions have evolved somewhere else and thus feels culturally ‘out of place’.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Biography of Leonardo Vinci - 880 Words

Leonardo Da Vinci was born on April 15th, 1452 in Vinci, Italy, and died May 2nd, 1519 in Amboise, France (Abbagnano). Leonardo Da Vinci once said, â€Å"I can carry out a sculpture in marble, bronze, or clay; and in painting I can do everything it is possible to do† (Lester, 63). Leonardo was an exceptionally talented artist and everyone recognized this, including himself. To be the greatest does not just mean being the most well known or to have the best quality of work. To be the greatest artist means to take time and put effort into the work, and appreciate the work. To be the greatest artist means to be influential and to inspiring to other artists who wish to learn the same techniques. Leonardo was exactly this. Leonardo Da Vinci put an exceedingly amount of effort into his work and inspired many artists around him. Although he was often unreliable when it came to his work, Leonardo Da Vinci was the greatest artist in European history because of his intense focus on nat ure and perspective, his studies of proportions and mathematics, and because of his influence on a number of artists. It is undeniable that Leonardo Da Vinci put a great deal of time into his work and studied plenty about the physics of nature and perspective. In fact, a great deal of his time revolved around these studies alone. Leonardo Da Vinci wrote in notebooks about methodological graphic symbols on procedures of scientific information and on philosophical application, as well as the processes ofShow MoreRelatedLeonardo Da Vinci: A Brief Biography1016 Words   |  4 PagesLEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo da Vinci is one of the most well-known renaissance artists. He was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Anchiano. People usually know his name related to the Mona Lisa or the Last Supper paintings. However, he was an artist who spends most of his time on his inventions and different interests. As well as his artistic skills, he was also a good mathematician, geometrician, architect, anatomist and engineer. His eager to know many things and his curiosity made him a multidirectionalRead MoreBiography Of Verrocchio s The Great Leonardo Da Vinci Essay1166 Words   |  5 Pagesteachings from Verrocchio would later turn into the signature styles of the great Leonardo Da Vinci. The uses of realistic studies, linear perspective, and religious symbols are just some of the techniques used in The Annunciation. For a while The Annunciation was thought be have been painted by another artist, historians later discovered that it was in fact a piece by Da Vinci. While the most useful pieces by Leonardo speaking in the historical and scientific sense, may not have been the Mona LisaRead MoreLeonardo Da Vinci1629 Words   |  7 PagesHistory 101 | Leonardo Da Vinci | Renaissance Pioneer | | Luis Quelhas | 11/13/2012 | | Leonardo Da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452. His father was a wealthy notary, named  Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci. His mother Caterina was a sixteen year old peasant girl. Leonardo had no surname when born and took the name Da Vinci meaning from Vinci, the small town in Florence where he was born. Throughout his life Leonardo faced many hardships. From 1457 he lived in the household ofRead More Leonardo da vinci Essay923 Words   |  4 Pages Leonardo Da Vinci nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Leonardo Da Vinci was a man of many worlds. He was a great influence inhis time. Leonardo was known as many things. He was known as a sculptor, architect, writer, musician,philosopher, engineer, and scientist. But most of all he was known for his impressive paintings that influenced the world. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Leonardo was born in Anchiano, Italy on April 15, 1452, to Piero Da Vinci, a prominent publicRead MoreLeonardo Da Vinci : The Most Famous For His Art1448 Words   |  6 Pages3/29/16 Leonardo Da Vinci When hearing the name Leonardo da Vinci, what comes to mind? For many people it will be his artwork. This is because of all of the accomplishments da Vinci has, he is most famous for his art. What many people don’t know was that he was also a scientist, inventor, and philosopher. Da Vinci lived in a time period known as the Renaissance. This was a time of knowledge and enlightenment, and it gave birth to many of the world’s most talented and educated people. Leonardo da VinciRead MoreAnalysis Of Leonardo Da Vinci s Madonna Of The Rocks1014 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscuss: Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452-1519), Madonna of the Rocks, c. 1495-1508, oil on panel, 75Ãâ€"47 in. The National Gallery, London. The subject of the Vinci’s Madonna of the Rocks (Fig 120) portrays four human figures under the cave with a landscape as background. In the center, the modeled Virgin Mary is seated on the ground. By her side is John the Baptist, who she has her arm over. Across fr om John the Baptist, Christ is sitting on the ground, and an angel is next to him. Vinci chooses theRead MoreAnalysis of Da Vincis Work as Being Reflective and Definitive of the Renaissance Period948 Words   |  4 PagesLeonardo Da Vinci and the Renaissance Period Objective The objective of this work examines the how Leonardo Da Vincis work is reflective and definitive of the Renaissance period and as well, describes some of Da Vincis art. This work will discuss the use of line, form, color, texture, and materials as found within one of his works and will state reasons this time period was chosen to examine in this work and why it is found to be appealing. Introduction Leonardo Da Vince was born April 15,Read MoreEssay leonardo da vinci637 Words   |  3 Pages Leonardo da Vinci Da Vinci was born April 15, 1452, and died May 2, 1519. He would wear pink to make his complexion look fresher. Leonardo never attended public school. He was raised by his single father ( In the mid-1460s the family settled in Florence, where Leonardo was given the best education that Florence, the intellectual and artistic center of Italy, could offer. In Verrocchios Baptism of Christ (http://wwwRead MoreAudrey Claire Henderson Ms. Mcpeak Art1113 3 April 2017899 Words   |  4 PagesApril 2017 Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was born April 15, 1452 in a little farmhouse along the rolling hills of Tuscany. Leonardo was the illegitimate child of a young peasant woman, Caterina, and a respected Florentine notary, Ser Piero. His father was also a wealthy businessman and landowner. He lived with his mother until the age of five and then moved in with his father where he welcomed as a member of the family and received elementary education. At the age of 15, Leonardo began an apprenticeshipRead MoreRenaissance Art : The Renaissance Period867 Words   |  4 Pagesof the world’s most famous artists were working during this time period, including Leonardo da Vinci, and other artists like Sandro Botticelli and Lorenzo Ghiberti. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, better known as Leonardo da Vinci, was a Florentine artist and is probably one of the most recognized artists of the Renaissance. Two of his well-known works include the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci). Another Florentine artist was sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti. Ghiberti is known for his

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Janissaries and Chinese Eunuchs Free Essays

Eunuchs and Janissaries In the ancient world, both the east and the west , they had their special system. It depended on the culture of these countries and what they used to. For example, in ancient Chinese, the court was full of maids, princess, concubines and the queen. We will write a custom essay sample on Janissaries and Chinese Eunuchs or any similar topic only for you Order Now But there were plenty of works which was too dirty or too hard for maids to do. They needed men. Not only the high-blooded was super Important, but also they might Influence the power if they colluded with each others. The emperor certainly could not stand them. So he made a decision that castrating the eunuchs. Term hundreds of years, there were a good deal of eunuchs that tried to rebel, tried to rob or steal the power. Eventually emperor forbid eunuchs to ask anything about politics. It did work. Janissaries was also the salary group which worked for emperor. However, It recruited the children from 7 to 10 years old by devilries. They must be trained for more than 10 years and then they fight as the strongest and honesties army Instead of doing dirty and heavy work In court. The reason why they are the honesties people was not only the ten-year train but also the agreeable reward. It seems that every officers, provincial governors even the vizier, one of the powerful jobs chose their generation from Janissaries. Such a considerable bonus was great enough to make Janissaries do their best for their lord. However, the ages from 7 to 20 are supposed to be the most wonderful memory for each person. Disclaimers broke them and take back a bloody battleground. I can not stand it. Although eunuchs can not have fun with their dream lover, but that was their choices. They wanted to get a life without poor . Those were what they paid for. Janissaries can choose nothing. It was unfair. It was not humanistic. How to cite Janissaries and Chinese Eunuchs, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Religious Fundamentalism and Its Effect on Society an Example of the Topic Government and Law Essays by

Religious Fundamentalism and Its Effect on Society 1. Introduction This paper seeks to discuss liberal interpretations of the Scripture (Bible, Koran, Torah, etc.) that have been used to support prejudice, justify slavery, sexism, war, ban textbooks and deny the rights of gays and lesbians. This paper takes the position that fundamentalism is a form of oppression that is driven by the need for a man to control and manipulate for power and that this goes against the true meaning of the Scriptures. The existence of 10 commandments throughout most Scriptures could provide evidence of existence of religious fundamentalism among significant religions. Need essay sample on "Religious Fundamentalism and Its Effect on Society" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed University Students Frequently Tell EssayLab specialists: How much do I have to pay someone to write my essay online? Specialists propose: Best Student Essay Writing Company Cheap Essay Writing Collage Papers For Sale Essay Paper Writing Service 2. Analysis and Discussion Although it may be argued that a great number of experts and analysts refer to the rise of Islamic terrorism as a new phenomenon, to be more deadly and more simple-minded than the more traditional terrorism associated with separatist and nationalist movements, still others may term the Islamists as if they are some inexplicable and incomprehensible people with suicidal tendencies as the same people make no demands and take no credit for their acts of terror (Mattil, n.d.). Mattil (n.d.) however noted the lack of monopoly of the Islamist behavior when he pointed out the surprising similarities between Islamic, Christian and Jewish fundamentalists. He argued that religious fundamentalists often share some common traits and motivations with secular dissidents engaged in political violence. He inferred as result that perhaps the most alarming situation is the convergence of fundamentalist interests and the potential for a global holy war. As this paper takes the position that fundamentalism is a form of oppression that is driven by the need for a man to control and manipulate for power, this paper believed these religious fundamentalists must be motivated by common emotion which is behind that manipulative need for power. Such emotion is called fear.Winston Churchill has warned that people have not to fear but fear itselg. These words appear to match with sweeping political accuracy with what is happening now. Mattil (n.d.) argued that fear was the only motivating factor behind political violence as fear comes out as the reason given by people why they have, kill or die for a cause. Mattil (n.d.) further argued that religious fundamentalists get united by their fears.He explained that whether these fundamentalists are Christians, Muslims or Jews, fear is the common denominator. As to what they actually fear varies. It could be fear of change or modernization and loss of influence. The same people may also fear the young will abandon the churches, mosques and synagogues for physical and material gratification. In other aspects fear could extend to fearing the influence of mass media, and its ability to undermine the young with different form of entertaining arts in the form of song, dance, fashion, alcohol , drugs, sex and even freedom itself. In short there is fear about the loss of control in the future about the members of their group. These fears are believed to be common among traditionalist Muslims as they are with traditionalist Jews and Christians. Thus one could hear the same concerns about moral decay, decadence, and the influence of the wicked. It is this area of peoples lives that there are indeed evils taught to them by their religious leaders. Since fears resonate loudest among those people who are poor or are lacking hope due to frustration from political and economic systems which they could hardly understand or control, religion will provide the meaning and it assures them hope if not materially at least for future salvation. Thus it should not be surprising for the observant-type of people to understand that fear does make connection for the many nationalist, separatist and independence movements as hey end up in political violence. Mattil (n.d.) believed that although experts, academics and analysts hypothesize about a multitude of causal effects that will produce violence, the thing that is not seen yet could completely explain things is that fear is the underlying motivator. Mattil (n.d.) further argued that core characteristics of social beings which include common values, religion, culture, language, and tradition for them to survive and prosper as group create the bonding when they fear something especially loss of survival. In these peoples attempt to change the situation, they could do many things like exaggerating the threats so that bonding gets harder and more meaningful to move them under a common cause, which will finally end up with their religion which gets twisted when people have no other hope but their beliefs. Mattil (n.d.) cited as examples the case of Northern Ireland conflict where both sides fear changes that will erode their nationality, language or culture or with it their economic opportunity. He noted similar motivations in Palestine and Israel and among the Kurds of Turkey, Iraq and Iran. What then is the connection of group of people fearing something with religious fundamentalism? Fundamentalism gets born as these groups fearing many things will have to unify themselves under a common solution or a divine truth.Mattil (n.d.) then argued that a movement cannot willfully and openly admit its fears for doing so would mean admitting weakness and despair. The result instead was to develop a positive political or theological proposition and agenda. Thus one could now see the creation of religious fundamentalism as driven by fear, under a unique version of a revealed Truth for each religion to see the reason for complete participation. Since truths cannot be temporal, thus the belief must inerrant. Gods word becomes the perfect way to justify the proposition. Thus the Bible, the Koran and Torah could have similarities under the proposition. Hence parts if not all of the Ten Commandments from the Book of Exodus could have similar or equivalent version in the Koran (Arshed, 2003) and the Torah. This fear necessitates an enemy which could be the devil, rival church, religious liberals, God-denying communists, or some other incarnation of evil. The resulting irrational religious anger demands a target, hence the need for an enemy (Spong, 1992). Because of the fear of eternal damnation that has characterized believers of religious fundamentalism, the true meaning of the Scriptures which is brotherhood to all men is sacrificed at the altar of the need to manipulate and control others for the sake of trying to preserve or prevent the evolution of human intellect into higher realms of spirituality. The newly discovered truth as far as these religious groups are concerned is that they need to justify many things for their survival. The first one is that religious fundamentalism has justified slavery. The bible was used to justify owning slaves and biblical writings were resorted to promote and justify the slavery institution (Mathza, 2007). The second instance is that religious fundamentalism has justified sexism. Since sexism may be taken to mean any discriminatory or abusive behavior against the opposite sex the fact the women is equated to evil because they are not allowed to assume major part of church activities. Women would also be blamed if the men have done something wrong because of strong religious belief that only women are evil (Spong, 1992). On this basis it could be inferred that religion was created by men and those women are to remain as subjects of men in religion. This is evident in the Catholic faith were women cannot become priest. If these women want to serve in their faith they just become nuns but they will obey priest because that is what religion has taught them. This is glaring evidence that sexism is justified by religious fundamentalism. As to justification of war, the attack of terrorists as done by members of Islamic world, it could be argued that the religious fundamentalism is the culprit. On the other hand if the attack of the US on Iraq is considered a war, then religious fundamentalism has indeed justified war hiding under the wardrobe of political democracy. Religious fundamentalism has justified banning of textbooks. For some Islamic countries which ban the bible, the same countries may be considered to have banned text books also related to biblical literature. Religious fundamentalism has justified denial of the rights of gays and lesbian in a number of occasions. To cite proof Kili and Uncu (1998) asserted homosexuality is prohibited with Islamic law. They authors cited the basis for such practice under the Koran which talks about the tribe of Lur, in which men had sex with men. In that event these men having sex with their kind are punished for the transgression by way of Allah sending stones that had rained down on them from the sky. By such teachings, Turkish children are brought to have religious faith that lesbians and gay men are sinners. This is the reason why homosexuality is seen as threat to the family and by extension to society as a whole (Kili and Uncu, 1998). 3. Conclusion This paper has demonstrated clearly that religious fundamentalism is a form of oppression that is driven by the need for a man to control and manipulate for power and which is basically rooted in fear. It was in seeking the solution towards the truth that religious fundamentalism was born but this paper believes that the same is still against the true spirit of Scriptures because the deeper meaning of which is charity and brotherhood to all then regardless of religious affiliation. Until religious groups practicing fundamentalism will see this reality, the manipulation for power is bound to continue. References: Arshed (2003), Islam Supports Bibles TEN Commandments, {www document} URL,, Accessed April 30, 2008 Kili and Uncu (1998), Turkey Country Report Mathza (2007) Extreme Islamic Fundamentalism Mattil, James (n.d.) What in the Name of God? Religious Fundamentalism, Fear & Terrorism Spong (1992),Rescuing the Bible from Fundamentalism, Harper One

Thursday, March 19, 2020

3 Cases of Erroneous Punctuation

3 Cases of Erroneous Punctuation 3 Cases of Erroneous Punctuation 3 Cases of Erroneous Punctuation By Mark Nichol In each of the following examples, confusion about the role of the comma in conjunction with a conjunction results in incorrect inclusion, omission, or placement of punctuation. Discussion following each example explains the error, and a revision illustrates correct employment of punctuation. 1. The business recently acted on the recommendation, and early on in its transformation process, has already generated valuable time and money-saving efficiencies. Here, the writer is unclear about how to integrate a parenthetical phrase into a sentence. Without the insertion of â€Å"early on in its transformation process,† no internal punctuation is necessary in this sentence, so the first comma should follow, not precede and, which is not part of the parenthesis: â€Å"The business recently acted on the recommendation and, early on in its transformation process, has already generated valuable time and money-saving efficiencies.† 2. That debate could place everything on the table and, for that reason, significant tax reform in 2017 may prove challenging to achieve.   In this example, the introductory phrase of an independent clause is treated as a parenthetical phrase. Note, however, that what precedes and is a complete statement, and what follows the conjunction is another complete statement, so a comma should team up with and (in that order) to separate the two independent clauses, which would otherwise be separated into two sentences: â€Å"That debate could place everything on the table, and for that reason, significant tax reform in 2017 may prove challenging to achieve.† This doesn’t mean that â€Å"for that reason† cannot function as a parenthetical phrase, but in that case, a comma preceding and would still be required to separate the independent clauses, and two more commas would have to bracket the phrase. The suggested revision, however, reduces the number of commas. (Also, it is not incorrect to omit the comma following â€Å"for that reason† as an introductory phrase, but I recommend punctuating such phrases consistently to eliminate arbitrary inconsistency.) 3. The financial services industry has had a strong focus on data governance for more than a decade and, as a result, most firms have mature data classification and governance programs in place.   This sentence has the same fault as the one in the previous example, so again, simply shunt the first comma so that it precedes the conjunction: â€Å"The financial services industry has had a strong focus on data governance for more than a decade, and as a result, most firms have mature data classification and governance programs in place.† Another solution, besides dividing one sentence into two, is to replace the comma and and with a semicolon rather than a period: â€Å"The financial services industry has had a strong focus on data governance for more than a decade; as a result, most firms have mature data classification and governance programs in place.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Classes and Types of Phrases35 Genres and Other Varieties of FictionKn- Words in English

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

A Case For Slow Writing

A Case For Slow Writing A Case For Slow Writing A Case For Slow Writing By Guest Author Those of us with Italian backgrounds will know that you don’t make an authentic pasta sauce in an hour. It should be cooked slowly, the ingredients added one by one, at the right time. First the meats must be browned, next the onions, the herbs, spices and tomatoes incorporated. Then the mixture must simmer for two, three, four hours until it is a thick, mouthwatering sugo, the succulent meat falling off the bones. It’s good to cook slowly. But this is a writing blog, right? Yes. And it’s okay to write slowly too, blending words, sentences and paragraphs together, adding them to just the right part, in the proper sequence. Time spent writing can often look like this: You write a few lines, the thoughts are flowing. You’re in the zone. Then life rips you out after what seems like a mere five minutes. You go back to the computer, type another line or two, only to be summoned by the real world again. If this describes you, don’t worry - the story still brews while you attend to reality, the words sub-consciously simmering as you do what you need to. There are only two situations when you really must write fast: 1. When you have a contract or a time limit. Writers quickly learn to write with speed when they have a pressing deadline. Students know the perils of handing in late assignments. 2. When you write for a living. If writing is the only way you earn money, then your income is tied to your output. The rest of us are free to savour our writing if that’s what we want to do. Incidentally, J.K. Rowling and Stephen King are two of many authors who wrote novels at a snail’s pace. And there are lots of valid reasons why writing might take a long time. Maybe you: have a life. are just starting. don’t need the money. are a meticulous researcher. like looking for exactly the right words. need time to gather your thoughts and assemble the most salient. Or maybe you write simply because, fast or slow, it’s good for your soul. Amen. Whether you take a day or three to write a brief article, a month or four to produce a short story, a year or more to draft a novel, I’m here to say, it’s okay to take your time. While ever you are making progress and you haven’t given up, if writing makes you happy, there’s no reason to feel guilty about doing it slowly. Savour each word, each sentence, each paragraph. About the Author: C. G. is a freelance writer. Her blog is named for the trees surrounding her home where she loves to play with words ─ the words sort themselves into stories at regular intervals. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Punctuating â€Å"So† at the Beginning of a Sentence5 Brainstorming Strategies for Writers1,462 Basic Plot Types

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Healthcare Management Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Research Paper

Healthcare Management Centers for Medicare and Medicaid - Research Paper Example care has other responsibilities which include the standards for administrative simplification from the (, 2014) Accountability Act of 1996 and (, 2014) Health Insurance Portability. It also has another responsibility for worth standards in durable health care facilities through its certification process and survey (, 2014) process, quality standards for clinical laboratory under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments as well as oversight of (, 2014) The Medicare together with Medicaid programs were contracted into law on 30th July 1965 (, 2014). LBJ who was the president by then is seen at the signing ceremony during independence at the Truman library in Missouri (, 2014). Truman who was the former president is also pictured seated beside him. President LBJ held the ceremony there in honor of the leadership of President Truman on health insurance. He had first proposed it in 1945. The most important legislative modification to Medicare referred to as the Medicare Modernization Act was as well signed into law by (, 2014) President George W. Bush (, 2014) from Texas, on 8th December 2003. This historic legislation is of significance to the outpatient as it adds the outpatient’s drug prescription advantage to Medicare and it also leads to many other significant changes (, 2014). A number of changes have been implemented (, 2014) to Center for Medical services programs since 1965 (Cm, 2014). In addition, the agencies that are concerned with the implementation of these programs have also changed (, 2014).The head of the Center for Medical services programs is as well the Administrator of the Center for both the Medicaid and Medicare Services (, 2014). This position of leadership is appointed by the president and the Senate confirms it. The Center for Medicare Services hires a total of approximately 4,100 employees 2,700 (, 2014) of the